Detail prayer timing according to shari’ah law
Time for Shubh (Fajr)
The time for Shubh starts from dawn until sunrise. Dawn is a bit bright white light that spreads in emerging eastern horizon shortly before sunrise. There are two kinds of dawn, i.e. the “kadzib” dawn and “shadiq” dawn. The kadzib dawn is the lie-dawn, as the name suggests. The kadzib dawn is when little bright light stretching and pointing up in the middle of the sky during the early hours in the morning. The shape of the bright light is like the tail of wolf. After a little while, then the sky became dark again.
While the second dawn is shadiq dawn, which is really the dawn of a rather bright white light that spreads in emerging eastern horizon shortly before sunrise. Dawn marks the entry of Fajr time.
So there are two types of dawn before sunrise. The first dawn is called the kazib dawn and the second dawn is called as the shadiq dawn. A few moments after shadiq dawn, then the sun will rise which signifies the end of Fajr time. So the time between shadiq dawn and sunrise is the time for Shubh (Fajr) prayer.
Time for Dhuhr
The time for Dhuhr starts a few moment after the sun directly above our head, that is after getting a bit leaning towards the west. And the time for Dhuhr prayer ends when the length of shadow of an object becomes equal to the length of the object itself. For example, if we plugged 1 meter a height of stick under the sun on a flat surface, the length of the stick’s shadow will become longer along with the movement of the sun to the west. As soon as the shadow length reachs 1 meter, then the time for Dhuhr is expired and Ashr prayer starts. This is according to Madzhab Syafii, Hambali, and Maliki.
While according to Madzhab Hanafi, the time for Dhuhr prayer ends when the length of shadow of an object becomes equal to the length of the object itself. While the Ashr prayer starts not directly, but when the length of shadow of an object becomes equal to the twice length of the object.
Time for Ashr
Ashr prayer time starts when the Dhuhr time is up, i.e. when the length of the shadow of an object is equal to the length of the object itself. This is according to Madzhab Syafii, Hambali, and Maliki. While according to Madzhab Hanafi, the Ashr prayer starts when the length of shadow of an object becomes equal to the twice length of the object. And the completion time of Ashr prayer is when the sun sets on the western horizon.
Another concern of Ashr prayer is that most ulama consider Ashr prayer of as ”Wustha Prayer” based on hadith from Aisyah ra as follows.
Qutaibah had told us, from Malik bin Anas, he said: Al Anshari had told us, Ma’nu had told us, Malik had told us, from Zaid bin Aslam, from Al Qa’qa’ bin Hakim from Abu Yunus ex-servant of ‘Aisyah, he said: ‘Aisyah ra ordered me to write a mushaf for her, she said: “When you arrive at this ayat, tell me: “Keep all of (your) prayers and (keep) Shalat Wustha.” QS. Al Baqarah 238. When I arrive at the ayat, I told her. She dictated me: “Keep all of (your) prayers and (keep) Shalat Wustha and Ashr prayer, stand up for Allah (in your prayer) with khusyu’.” Aisyah said:”I heard this from Rasulullah SAW.”” In this matter, there is similar hadith from Hafshah. Abu Isa said this hadith is hasan shahih. The above hadith was narrated by Imam Tirmidzi.
The meaning of the “wustha” itself is “in the middle”. If this is true, then it could be interpreted that the time for Ashr is at the middle time between Dhuhr and Maghrib prayer. The clause will be used as an alternative time to determine the Ashr prayer when the time difference between Dhuhr and Ashr is very short, e.g. less than one hour, such that unable to perform Friday prayer properly.
Time for Maghrib
The time for Maghrib starts from sunset and this is already a consensus (agreement) of the muslim scholars. It starts since the disappearance of the sun disk swallowed by the earth and lasted until the disappearance of the red-twilight.
Time for Isha
The time for Isha starts from the end of the Maghrib prayer throughout the night until early morning when the shadiq dawn rises. Essentially, every prayer time extends from the end of the previous prayer time until the entry of the next prayer time, except for Fajr prayers. While the primary time to pray Isha is since the beginning of the disappearance of the red-twilight until the one third of the night or until midnight
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