The basic evidence (ad-dalil) or guide about the prayer time in Al-Quran and Al-Hadith

Evidence from Al-Quran

There are a number of verses in the Qur’an related to the time of prayer, even though it is not in detail, as follows.

An Nisaa 103

Indeed, prayer has been decreed upon the believers at specified times.” (An-Nisaa 103). The ayat above mentions clearly that the daily prayers should be done at specified times.

Al Isra 78

Establish prayer at the decline of the sun [from its meridian] until the darkness of the night and [also] the Qur’an of dawn. Indeed, the recitation of dawn is ever witnessed.” (Al-Isra 78)
According to the mufassirin, this ayat mentions about prayer times, that is at the “decline of the sun”, i.e. Dhuhr and Ashr prayers. And at the “darkness of the night” is Isha and Maghrib prayers. And the “Qur’an at dawn” means Fajr prayer.

Hud 114

 

And establish regular prayers at the two ends of the day and at the approaches of the night…” (Hud 114)
According to the mufassirin, this ayat mentions about prayer times, that is at the “both edges of the day“, i.e. Fajr and Ashr prayers, and at the “beginning portion of the night“, that is Maghrib and Isha.

Another ayat showing an indication for the five compulsory congregational prayers is as follows.

Thahaa 130

So bear patiently (O Muhammad SAW) what they say, and glorify the praises of your Lord before the rising of the sun, and before its setting, and during some of the hours of the night, and at the sides of the day (an indication for the five compulsory congregational prayers), that you may become pleased with the reward which Allah shall give you.” (Thaahaa 130)

Evidence from Al-Hadith

The hadith of the Prophet Muhammad SAW which relates to the time of prayer is as follows.

Yahya Bin ‘Adam had told us, that Ibnu Mubarak had told us, from Husain bin ‘Ali he said; Wahb bin Kaisan had told us, from Jabir bin Abdullah Al Anshori…

That Jibril came to Nabi SAW and said: “Stand up and pray”, then he prayed Dhuhr when the sun had slipped. Then (Jibril) came to (Nabi SAW) at the time of Ashr and said: “Stand up and pray”, then he prayed Ashr when the shadow just like the object, or (Jabir bin Abdullah ra) said when the length of shadow equal to the length of its object. Then (Jibril) came to him at the time of Maghrib and said: “Stand up and pray”, then he prayed Maghrib when the sun is set. Then (Jibril) came to him at the time of Isha, and said: “Stand up and pray”, then he prayed Isha when the redtwilight is gone. Then (Jibril) came to him at the time of Fajr, and said: “Stand up and pray”, then he prayed Fajr when the fajr is shining or (Jabir bin Abdullah ra) said when the fajr is coming.

Then the next day, Jibril came again at the time of Dhuhr, and said: “Stand up and pray”, then he prayed Dhuhr when the length of shadow the same as the length of its object. Then (Jibril) came to (Nabi shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) at the time of Ashr and said: “Stand up and pray”, then he prayed Ashr when the length of shadow equal to the twice length of its object. Then (Jibril) came to him at the time of Maghrib at the same time and not far away from the day before. Then (Jibril) came to him at the time of Isha, when the half night has already gone, or (Jabir bin Abdullah ra) said when the one third of the night has already gone, then he (Nabi shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) prayed Isha. Then (Jibril) came to him at the time of Fajr when the Shubh is very bright, and said: “Stand up and pray”, then he prayed Fajr. Then Jibril said: “In between of those two times are the time for prayers”.

The above hadith was narrated by Imam Ahmad (14011), Imam Nasa’i (510), and Imam Tirmidzi (138). As mentioned in Nailul Authar, according to Imam Bukhari this hadith is the most valid hadith explaining the times for prayer. For more detail, the readers my read Bustanul Ahbar – Mukhtashar – Nailul Authar written by Syaikh Faishal bin Abdul Aziz Al Mubarak. Nailul Authar is the most famous standard book with regard the Syariah-Law, which was written by Imam Asy-Syaukani. Nailul Authar is actually syarah (explanation) of the book of law hadith collection “Al Muntaqa” written by Taqiyuddin Ibnu Taimiyah.

Another hadith narrated by Imam Muslim mentioned that:

Ahmad bin Ibrahim Ad Duraqi had told me, that Abdushshamad had told us, that Hammam had told us, that Qatadah had told us, from Abu Ayyub, from Abdullah bin ‘Amru, that:

Rasulullah SAW said: “The time for Dhuhr prayer is when the sun has decline and (until) someone’s shadow is like his shadow, as long as the time for Ashr has not arrived. And the time for Ashr is as long as the sun does not get yellow. And the time for Maghrib prayer is as long as the red-twilight (shafaq) has not disappeared. And the time for Isha prayer is until midnight. And the time for Shubh is since the dawn until as long as the sun had not risen. When the sun rises, do not perform the prayer, because it rises between the two horns of the devil.”

A hadith below was also narrated by Imam Muslim.

Mu’adz had told us, that Ibnu Hisyam had told my father, from Qatadah, from Abu Ayyub, from Abdullah bin ‘Amru, that Nabiyullah SAW said: ”If you perform Fajr prayer, the time lasts until the first devil horn. If you perform Dhuhr prayer, the time lasts until the time of Ashr. If you perform Ashr prayer, the time lasts until the sun gets yellow. If you perform Maghrib prayer, the time is until the red-twilight gone. And if you perform Isha prayer, the time lasts until midnight.”

Conclusion

The conclusion is presented in this page.

 


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